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ME213 Mechanics of Materials Formula Sheet Materials Young’s modulus E =  ,  Shear modulus G = Thermal expansion: L = Lo (1 + T) Composite Materials Ecomposite = E f a f + Em (1 − a f ) E where ν is Poissons ratio 2(1 +  ) (when loaded parallel to fibres) (when loaded perpendicular to fibres) Ecomposite = 1 a f / E f + (1 − a f )/ Em Viscoelastic Materials Stress at time t (t) in a viscoelastic material under constant strain E t = ce- Et/ , where c is stress at time t = 0, and is a con