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Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory 1/2/19 The theory assumes that behavior fro conscious choices among alternatives whose purpose  is to  results m maximize pleasure and minimize pain. The key elements to this theory are referred to as  following­ 1. 2. 3. Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory Valence (V) Instrumentality (I) Expectancy (E) 1/2/19 Valence       not attaining an outcome compared Valence may vary from -1 to +1. attaining it. with Valence is zero if the individual