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1.1 Introduction Counting things is easy for us now. We can count objects in large numbers, for example, the number of students in the school, and represent them through numerals. We can also communicate large numbers using suitable number names. It is not as if we always knew how to convey large quantities in conversation or through symbols. Many thousands years ago, people knew only small numbers. Gradually, they learnt how to handle larger numbers. They also learnt how to express large numbers in symbols. All this came through