Sociology is the science of culture while the science of state and government is political science. Sociology examines all forms of organized and unorganized society while studies in political science organized society in a political way. Sociology's spectrum is considered wider than political science.
Sociologists and political scientists both study human society. Studies extend from social behavior and the origin of social groups (Micro Analysis) to the origin, development, and operation of political systems (Macro Analysis). Their research provides insights into different ways individuals, groups, and governments make decisions, exercise power, and respond to change. Through their studies and analyses, both sociologists and political scientists suggest solutions to social, business, personal, and governmental problems. In fact, many work as public policy analysts for government or private organizations.
Sociologists tend to focus on social behavior by examining the groups, cultures, organizations, and social institutions people form. They also study the activities in which people participate, including activities conducted in social, religious, political, economic, and business organizations. They study the behavior of, and interaction among, groups, organizations, institutions, and nations, and how they react to phenomena such as the spread of technology, crime, social movements, and epidemics of illness. They also trace the origin and growth of these groups and interactions. Sociologists analyze how social influences affect different individuals and groups, and the ways organizations and institutions affect the daily lives of those same people. Most sociologists work in one or more specialties, such as social organization, stratification, and mobility; racial and ethnic relations; education; the family; social psychology; urban, rural, political, and comparative sociology; gender relations; demography; gerontology; criminology; and sociological practice.
Political scientists conduct research on a wide range of subjects, such as relations between the United States and other countries, the institutions and political life of nations, the politics of small towns or major metropolises, and the decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court. In the most Macro of sense, political science is the study of power and how it is developed and used by individuals as well as groups. There is a broad swath of topics to consider. For example, public opinion, political psychology and decision making (the explanation and prediction of political actor behavior is my personal favorite), ideology, and public policy, as well as the structure and operation of governments and various other entities (i.e. NGOs).
Political scientists frequently work as policy analysts for government or in labor, political, or professional organizations, some of which are nonprofit. They gather and analyze information to assist in the planning, development, review, and interpretation of government or industrial policies. They use the results of their research to raise public awareness of social issues, such as crime prevention, access to health care, and protection of the environment, hoping to influence government action.
You asked a great question. I’ve taken a number of liberties to break it into four paragraphs… I welcome feedback and additional question.
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