Science
120 weeks ago
Science(fromLatinscientia, meaning"knowledge")[1][2]:58is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizesknowledgein the form of testableexplanationsandpredictionsabout theuniverse.[a]Contemporary science is typically subdivided intothenatural sciences, which study thematerial universe; thesocial sciences, which study peopleand societies; and theformal sciences, which studylogicandmathematics. The formal sciences are often excluded as they do not depend onempiricalobservations.[3]Disciplines which use science, likeengineeringandmedicine, may also be considered to beapplied sciences.[4]Fromclassical antiquitythrough the 19th century,science as a type of knowledge was more closelylinked tophilosophythan it is now, and in theWestern worldthe term "natural philosophy" onceencompassed fields of study that are today associated with science, such asastronomy, medicine, andphysics.[5][b]However, during theIslamic Golden Agefoundations for thescientific methodwere laid byIbn al-Haythamin hisBook of Optics.[6][7][8][9][10]While the classification ofthe material world by the ancientIndiansandGreeksintoair, earth, fire and waterwas more philosophical, medievalMiddle Easternsusedpractical and experimental observationto classifymaterials.[11]In the 17th and 18th centuries, scientists increasingly sought to formulate knowledge in terms ofphysical laws. Over the course of the 19th century, the word "science" became increasingly associated with thescientific methoditself as a disciplined way to study the natural world. It was during this time that scientific disciplines such asbiology,chemistry, andphysicsreached their modern shapes. That same time period also included the origin of the terms "scientist" and "scientific community", the founding of scientific institutions, and the increasing significance of their interactions with society and other aspects of culture.[12][13]The scale of theuniversemapped to thebranches of science, with formal sciences as the foundation.[14]: Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.HistoryMain article:History of scienceScience in a broad sense existed before themodern eraand in many historicalcivilizations.[c]Modern scienceis distinct in itsapproachand successful in itsresults, so it now defines what science is in the strictest sense of the term.[15]Science in its original sense was a word for a type of knowledge rather than a specialized word for the pursuit of such knowledge. In particular, it was the type of knowledge which people can communicate to each other and share. For example, knowledge about the working of natural things was gathered long before recorded history and led to the development of complex abstract thought. This is shown by the construction of complex calendars, techniques for making poisonous plants edible, and buildings such asthe Pyramids. However, no consistent conscientious distinction was made between knowledge of such things, which are true in everycommunity, and other types of communal knowledge, such as mythologies and legal systems.AntiquitySee also:Nature (philosophy)Maize, known in some English-speaking countries as corn, is a largegrainplant domesticated byindigenous peoplesinMesoamericainprehistoric timesBefore the invention or discovery of theconceptof "nature" (ancient Greekphusis) by thePre-Socratic philosophers, the same words tend to be used to describe thenatural"way" in which a plant grows,[16]and the "way" in which, for example, one tribe worships a particular god. For this reason, it is claimed these men were the first philosophers in the strict sense, and also the firstpeople to clearly distinguish "nature" and"convention."[17]: p.209Science was therefore distinguished as the knowledge of nature and things which are true for every community, and the name of the specialized pursuit of such knowledge wasphilosophy — the realm of the first philosopher-physicists. They were mainly speculators ortheorists, particularly interested inastronomy. In contrast, trying to use knowledge of nature to imitate nature (artifice ortechnology, Greektechn?) was seen by classical scientists as a more appropriate interest for lower class artisans.[18]A clear-cut distinction between formal (eon) and empirical science (doxa) was made by the pre-Socratic philosopherParmenides(fl. late sixth or early fifth century BCE). Although his workPeri Physeos(On Nature) is a poem, it may be viewed as an epistemological essay on method in natural science. Parmenides' ??? may refer to a formal system or calculus which can describe nature more precisely than natural languages. "Physis" may be identical to ???.[19]Aristotle, 384 BCE – 322 BCE, one of the early figures in the development of thescientific method[20]A major turning point in the history of early philosophical science was the controversial but successful attempt bySocratesto apply philosophy to the study of human things, including human nature, the nature of political communities, and human knowledge itself. He criticized the older type of study of physics as toopurely speculative and lacking in self-criticism. He was particularly concerned that some of the early physicists treated nature as if it could be assumed that it had no intelligent order, explaining things merely in terms of motion and matter. The study of human things had been the realm of mythology and tradition, however, so Socrates was executed as a heretic.[21]: 30eAristotlelater created a less controversial systematic programme of Socratic philosophy which wasteleologicaland human-centred. He rejected many of the conclusions of earlier scientists. For example, in his physics, the sun goes around the earth, and many things have it aspart of their nature that they are for humans. Eachthing has aformal causeandfinal causeand a role in the rational cosmic order. Motion and change is described as theactualizationof potentials already in things, according to what types of things they are. While the Socratics insisted that philosophy should be used to consider the practical question of the best way tolive for a human being (a study Aristotle divided intoethicsandpolitical philosophy), they did not argue for any other types ofapplied science.Aristotle maintained the sharp distinction between science and the practical knowledge of artisans, treating theoretical speculation as the highest type of human activity, practical thinking about good living as something less lofty, and theknowledge of artisans as something only suitablefor the lower classes. In contrast to modern science, Aristotle's influential emphasis was upon the "theoretical" steps ofdeducinguniversalrules from raw data and did not treat the gathering of experience and raw data as part of science itself.[d]
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shivanichau88  kindly upload notes or ask questions properly ,
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Preety  Notes submit hi krna hai to publish kro na yhan pin request pe kya ul jalul kuch v de dete ho.
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